Al-Qahira, which is Cairo in English , Cairo was founded by the Islamic dynasty of Fatimids in 969 AD.
So Cairo has been the capital of Egypt for alomst 1000 years and now it is the largest city in Egypt and Africa in terms of area and population.A cosmopolitan city that blends the charm of the east with aMediterranean flavour which accommodates 26% of Egypt's population.Cairo, the city of one thousand minarets, has a wealth of pharaonic tombs and pyramids, Islamic mosques and forts, Coptic churches and monasteries and modern hotels and shops representing over 50 centuries of civilization.Before the 1860s, Cairo extended west as far as what is today Midan Opera, surrounded by a swampy plain flooded annually by the Nile. In 1863 French-educated Ismail came to power, inviting architects from Europe to design a modern Cairo beside the old Islamic city. The building boom set in place continues today, with the city’s boundaries constantly expanding into the surrounding deserts.If you would like to see 5000 years of history and civilization, all in one place only, then you shouldn't miss Cairo.
Saqqara located on the western bank of the Nile about 20km south of Cairo , on the same limestone plateau that extends north to Giza .
Saqqara is one of the richest archaeological sites in Egypt , containing monuments constructed over a span of more than 3000 years, the earliest were tombs of 1st dynasty and the latest structures date to Graeco- Roman and even to Christian times, It was the principal necropolis of Memphis the first capital of Egypt.
Saqqara was used as a royal necropolis as early as the first and second dynasties, the first pyramid in Saqqara was built during the third dynasty
, under the king Zoser , the first king in third dynasty , by the famous architect Imhotep , the first architect whose name has been recorded in history ,chose to build the funerary complex of king in stone, thereafter the largest and most beautiful old kingdom private tomb in all of Egypt were built here. It continued to be a burial place for high officials and the
Apis bulls sacred to God Ptah, also it is famous for the pyramids of fifth and sixth dynasties with pyramid texts .