Al-Qahira, which is Cairo in English , Cairo was founded by the Islamic dynasty of Fatimids in 969 AD.
So Cairo has been the capital of Egypt for alomst 1000 years and now it is the largest city in Egypt and Africa in terms of area and population.A cosmopolitan city that blends the charm of the east with aMediterranean flavour which accommodates 26% of Egypt’s population.Cairo, the city of one thousand minarets, has a wealth of pharaonic tombs and pyramids, Islamic mosques and forts, Coptic churches and monasteries and modern hotels and shops representing over 50 centuries of civilization.Before the 1860s, Cairo extended west as far as what is today Midan Opera, surrounded by a swampy plain flooded annually by the Nile. In 1863 French-educated Ismail came to power, inviting architects from Europe to design a modern Cairo beside the old Islamic city. The building boom set in place continues today, with the city’s boundaries constantly expanding into the surrounding deserts.If you would like to see 5000 years of history and civilization, all in one place only, then you shouldn’t miss Cairo.
Saqqara located on the western bank of the Nile about 20km south of Cairo , on the same limestone plateau that extends north to Giza .
Saqqara is one of the richest archaeological sites in Egypt , containing monuments constructed over a span of more than 3000 years, the earliest were tombs of 1st dynasty and the latest structures date to Graeco- Roman and even to Christian times, It was the principal necropolis of Memphis the first capital of Egypt.
Saqqara was used as a royal necropolis as early as the first and second dynasties, the first pyramid in Saqqara was built during the third dynasty
, under the king Zoser , the first king in third dynasty , by the famous architect Imhotep , the first architect whose name has been recorded in history ,chose to build the funerary complex of king in stone, thereafter the largest and most beautiful old kingdom private tomb in all of Egypt were built here. It continued to be a burial place for high officials and the
Apis bulls sacred to God Ptah, also it is famous for the pyramids of fifth and sixth dynasties with pyramid texts . Among all the monuments created by man , few have attracted as much attention or earned as much respect as the pyramids
of Egypt. Designed to protect and preserve the body of the king so that he might enjoy eternal life, they became international tourist attraction shortly after they were built , and to this day they engender awe and admiration for the culture that created them 4500 years ago. The Egyptian pyramids are very human monuments, although their builders may have tried not to emphasize that fact. At down ,as the sun rose over the eastern cliffs, its rays caught the pyramids energizing their sacred precincts with heat and light well before five centuries ago, when the pyramids were complete with their freshly smoothed white limestone casings , their brilliancr must have been blinding . Only in this light can we appreciate the intensity with which the pyramids symbolized the sun god.
Unique among the seven wonders of the ancient world in having survived the ravages of time, the great pyramids of Giza continue to dazzle and inspire the countless stunned visitors who tour these immense masses of stone, grandiose testimony to the extraordinary civilization that flourished in the Nile valley between the fourth and the third millennia.It is difficult to explain the mysterious power that undoubtedly emanates from the pyramids of Giza.A veil of mystery still lies over the pyramids as, despite all the research and studies carried out to date.